Thursday, April 21, 2011

:Gujarati Scraps:

પૈસાથી તમે મકાન ખરીદી શકો..............ઘર નહીં.
પૈસાથી તમે પલંગ ખરીદી શકો..............ઊંઘ નહીં.
પૈસાથી તમે ઘડીયાળ ખરીદી શકો..........સમય નહીં.
પૈસાથી તમે પુસ્તક ખરીદી શકો............. જ્ઞાન નહીં.
પૈસાથી તમે કપડા ખરીદી શકો..............સૌંદયૅ નહીં.
પૈસાથી તમે ખોરાક ખરીદી શકો.............પાચન નહીં.
પૈસાથી તમે હોદો ખરીદી શકો...............સન્માન નહીં.
પૈસાથી તમે લોહી ખરીદી શકો...............જીદગી નહીં.
પૈસાથી તમે દવા ખરીદી શકો...............તદુરસ્તી નહીં.
પૈસાથી તમે વીમો ખરીદી શકો..............સલામતી નહીં.
પૈસાથી તમે વસ્તુઓ ખરીદી શકો............આનંદ નહીં
    -------------xXx -------------

    ...પત્ની ચાલીસા........

    નમો- નમો પત્ની મહારાણી,
    તુમ્હારી મહિમા કોઈ નાં જાણી.... (૧)
    હમને સમજા તુમ અબલા હો,
    પર તુમ તો સબસે બડી બલા હો.... (૨)
    ...જિસ દિન હાથ મેં બેલણ આવે,
    ઉસ દિન પતિ ખુબ ચીલ્લાવે.... (૩)
    સારે પલંગ પે પત્ની સોવે,
    પતિ બૈઠ જમીન પર રોવે.... (૪)
    તુમસે હી ઘર મથુરા કાશી,
    ઔર તુમસે હી ઘર સત્યાનાશી.... (૫)
    પત્ની ચાલીસા જો પતિ ગાવે,
    સબ સુખ છોડ પરમ દુખ પાવ.... (૬)
    ભૂત પિશાચ નઝર આ જાવે,
    પત્ની જબ અસલી રૂપ મેં આવે.... (૭)

    ## FuN TiMe ##

    Guys are always Happy Creatures...

    Guys are always Happy Creatures....... WHY?
    Their last name stays with them forever,
    Phone Conversations last 30 sec flat,
    A 5-day vacation requires only one Jeans,
    If someone forgets to invite them, he can still be their friend,
    The same hairstyle lasts for years or even decades,
    They can do shopping for 25 relatives in 25 minutes,
    They don't freak out when they go to a party and see another man wearing the same shirt, instead, they become buddies...

    Pass this to Women Who can Digest it
    To Men Who'll Enjoy Reading.. !

    T20 & IPL ki wajah se crickt bahut improve hui hai hume bhi apna examination system improve karne ke liye xamz main yea stp lena chahiye-

    1) Har paper 1.30 hour ka and 50 marks ka ho,

    2) Har 30 Mints. ke baad discussion ke liye break ho,

    3) Hume 1 free hit di jaye jis mai studnt apni marzi ke 1 Q ka apni marzi se ans de,

    4) Pehle 20 mints ka power play jismai examinar hall se bahar rahe,

    5) Har correct ans pe Cheer girls aakar dance kare.

    શીખો કંઈક

    ક – કહે છે કલેશ ન કરો
    ખ – કહે છે ખરાબ ન કરો
    ગ – કહે છે ગર્વ ન કરો
    ઘ – કહે છે ઘમંડ ન કરો
    ચ – કહે છે ચિંતા ન કરો
    છ – કહે છે છળથી દૂર રહો
    જ – કહે છે જવાબદારી નિભાવો
    ઝ – કહે છે ઝઘડો ન કરો
    ટ – કહે છે ટીકા ન કરો
    ઠ – કહે છે ઠગાઇ ન કરો
    ડ – કહે છે કયારેય ડરપોક ન બનો
    ઢ – કહે છે કયારેય 'ઢ' ન બનો
    ત– કહે છે બીજાને તુચ્છકારો નહીં
    થ – કહે છે થાકો નહીં
    દ – કહે છે દીલાવર બનો
    ધ – કહે છે ધમાલ ન કરો
    ન – કહે છે નમ્ર બનો
    પ – કહે છે પ્રેમાળ બનો
    ફ – કહે છે ફુલાઇ ન જાઓ
    બ – કહે છે બગાડ ન કરો
    ભ – કહે છે ભારરૂપ ન બનો
    મ – કહે છે મધૂર બનો
    ય – કહે છે યશસ્વી બનો
    ર – કહે છે રાગ ન કરો
    લ – કહે છે લોભી ન બનો
    વ – કહે છે વેર ન રાખો
    શ – કહે છે કોઇને શત્રુ ન માનો
    સ – કહે છે હંમેશા સાચુ બોલો
    ષ – કહે છે હંમેશા ષટ્કાયના જીવની રક્ષા કરો
    હ – કહે છે હંમેશા હસતા રહો
    ક્ષ – કહે છે ક્ષમા આપતા શીખો

    Me + You = FRIENDS

    Zakham + You = MARHAM

    Tanhayee + You = MEHFIL

    Tears + You = SMILE

    Raasta + You = MANZIL

    Nothing + You = EVERYTHING

    Me + You = FRIENDS


    Andrea Rincon

    FM demodulators

    There are a number of circuits that can be used to demodulate FM. Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages, some being used when receivers used discrete components, and others now that ICs are widely used.Below is a list of some of the main types of FM demodulator or FM detector.
    • Slope FM detector
    • Balanced Slope FM detector
    • Foster-Seeley FM detector
    • Ratio detector
    • PLL: Phase locked loop FM demodulator
    • Quadrature FM demodulator / Coincidence FM demodulator
    Slope detection
    The very simplest form of FM demodulation is known as slope detection or demodulation. It simply uses a tuned circuit that is tuned to a frequency slightly offset from the carrier of the signal. As the frequency of the signal varies up and down in frequency according to its modulation, so the signal moves up and down the slope of the tuned circuit. This causes the amplitude of the signal to vary in line with the frequency variations. In fact at this point the signal has both frequency and amplitude variations. The final stage in the process is to demodulate the amplitude modulation and this can be achieved using a simple diode circuit. One of the most obvious disadvantages of this simple approach is the fact that both amplitude and frequency variations in the incoming signal appear at the output. However the amplitude variations can be removed by placing a limiter before the detector. Additionally the circuit is not particularly efficient as it operates down the slope of the tuned circuit. It is also unlikely to be particularly linear, especially if it is operated close to the resonant point to minimize the signal loss.
    Limitations of balanced slope detector
    *Linearity is not defined
    *It does not take care about the noise and spurious signals therefore the output of balanced slope detectors may contain some noise

    The Foster-Seely Discriminator is a widely used FM detector. The detector consists of a special center-tapped IF transformer feeding two diodes. The schematic looks very much like a full wave DC rectifier circuit. Because the input transformer is tuned to the IF frequency, the output of the discriminator is zero when there is no deviation of the carrier; both halves of the center tapped transformer are balanced. As the FM signal swings in frequency above and below the carrier frequency, the balance between the two halves of the center-tapped secondary are destroyed and there is an output voltage proportional to the frequency deviation.
    The discriminator has excellent linearity and is a good detector for WFM and NBFM signals. Its major drawback is that it also responds to AM signals. A good limiter must precede a discriminator to prevent AM noise from appearing in the output.
    The ratio detector is a variant of the discriminator. The circuit is similar to the discriminator, but in a ratio detector, the diodes conduct in opposite directions. Also, the output is not taken across the diodes, but between the sum of the diode voltages and the center tap. The output across the diodes is connected to a large capacitor, which eliminates AM noise in the ratio detector output. The operation of the ratio detector is very similar to the discriminator, but the output is only 50% of the output of a discriminator for the same input signal.
    The PLL detector uses PLL technology to demodulate FM signals. The diagram below shows a simple PLL detector. The phase detector compares the phase of the FM input and the VCO output. Frequency deviation of the carrier results in a phase difference between the two and the phase detector sends an error voltage to the low pass filter. The filtered error signal is used to change the VCO output frequency in order to reduce the phase error. The output of the low pass filter has an amplitude that is proportional to the deviation of the FM input, so it is actually a replica of the original modulating signal. FM is converted directly to audio.
    A PLL can operate in three different modes:
    1. Free running
    2. Capture
    3. Tracking  
    In the free running mode, the input frequency is not close enough to the VCO frequency and the PLL runs at the free running frequency determined by the timing circuits of the VCO. The error voltage is outside the range of the VCOAs the input frequency gets closer to the VCO frequency, the error voltage reaches a value at which it can begin to change the VCO frequency. This is the capture mode. The error voltage will continue to decrease as the VCO frequency gets closer to the input frequency.
    Finally, when the VCO is operating at the same frequency as the input, the PLL is in the tracking mode. The VCO will track changes in the input frequency as long as the input frequency remains in a range of frequencies known as the hold-in range.
      The Quadrature Detector does not require a center-tapped RF transformer; therefore it can be integrated onto a single chip, unlike the other detector circuits. The IF signal and a square wave at the carrier frequency are combined in an XOR gate.  The square wave is phase shifted 90 degrees with respect to the IF carrier.
      The time interval between a zero crossing of the square wave and the IF signal will depend on the instantaneous frequency, which makes the gate output a pulse whose width depends on the time interval. In essence, the quadrature detector converts an FM signal to a PWM (pulse width modulated) signal, as indicated in the figure above. The original audio signal is recovered by passing the PWM signal through a low-pass filter.