Saturday, August 31, 2013

Cryptography and Modern Cryptography

The Concise Oxford Dictionary (2006) defines cryptography as the art of writing or solving codes. This definition may be historically accurate, but it does not capture the essence of modern cryptography. First, it focuses solely on the problem of secret communication. This is evidenced by the fact that the definition specifies “codes”, elsewhere defined as “a system of prearranged signals, especially used to ensure secrecy in transmitting messages”. Second, the definition refers to cryptography as an art form. Indeed, until the 20th century (and arguably until late in that century), cryptography was an art. 

Constructing good codes, or breaking existing ones, relied on creativity and personal skill. There was very little theory that could be relied upon and there was not even a well-defined notion of what constitutes a good code. In the late 20th century, this picture of cryptography radically changed. A rich theory emerged, enabling the rigorous study of cryptography as a sci- ence. Furthermore, the field of cryptography now encompasses much more than secret communication. For example, it deals with the problems of mes- sage authentication, digital signatures, protocols for exchanging secret keys, authentication protocols, electronic auctions and elections, digital cash and more. 

In fact, modern cryptography can be said to be concerned with problems that may arise in any distributed computation that may come under internal or external attack. Without attempting to provide a perfect definition of modern cryptography, we would say that it is the scientific study of techniques for securing digital information, transactions, and distributed computations. Another very important difference between classical cryptography (say, be- fore the 1980s) and modern cryptography relates to who uses it. Historically, the major consumers of cryptography were military and intelligence organizations. Today, however, cryptography is everywhere! Security mechanisms that rely on cryptography are an integral part of almost any computer system. 

Users (often unknowingly) rely on cryptography every time they access a secured website. Cryptographic methods are used to enforce access control in multi user operating systems, and to prevent thieves from extracting trade secrets from stolen laptops. Software protection methods employ encryption, authentication, and other tools to prevent copying. The list goes on and on. In short, cryptography has gone from an art form that dealt with secret communication for the military to a science that helps to secure systems for ordinary people all across the globe. This also means that cryptography is becoming a more and more central topic within computer science.

Nasha (2013) Screenshots

Continuity of Care Document (CCD)

Continuity of Care Document (CCD) describes constraints on the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture, Release 2 (CDA) specification in accordance with requirements set forward in ASTM E2369-05 Standard Specification for Continuity of Care Record (CCR). It is intended as an alternate implementation to the one specified in ASTM ADJE2369 for those institutions or organizations committed to implementation of the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture. The Continuity of Care Record (CCR) is a core data set of the most relevant administrative, demographic, and clinical information facts about a patient’s healthcare, covering one or more healthcare encounters.2 It provides a means for one healthcare practitioner, system, or setting to aggregate all of the pertinent data about a patient and forward it to another practitioner, system, or setting to support the continuity of care. CCD is just one type of CDA document. Other types of CDA documents can contain some of the same CCD sections, but different sections as well.

Clinical Document Architecture (CDA)

Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) is an HL7 document markup standard that specifies the structure and semantics of "clinical documents" for the purpose of exchange. CDA documents derive their machine processable meaning from the HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) and use the HL7 Version 3 Data Types. CDA is a flexible XML-based clinical document architecture. CDA itself is not a specific document, but can be used to express many types of documents. A CDA document can contain many data sections, all of which contain narrative text, and some of which contain structured data elements, some of which are coded. There are many types of CDA documents, including CCD, XDS-MS Discharge Summary (HITSP C48), History and Physical (HITSP C84), Lab Report (HITSP C37), etc.

Top 20 EMR Vendors of 2012



Rank - EMR Vendor -Mean Score [0 (Lowest) To 10 (Highest)] - Total KPIs ranked #1

3 CARE360 QUEST 9.03 3
4 NEXTGEN 8.62
6 CERNER 8.47
7 APRIMA 8.40
11 SRS SOFT 7.85
12 SEVOCITY 7.83
14 PRAXIS 7.77
17 MICRO MD 7.34
19 VITERA (SAGE) 7.08

Sample HL7 File

Sample Result file from CCHIT


PID|1|12|00000333^^^^AN||Grayson^Jim^^^^^L||19430309|M|||834 Ocean Vista Avenue^Apt. 202^Santa Monica^CA^90401||3105552233
OBR|1|3^EHR-System|LAB003^^CCHIT^L-CL|087-0714^Lipid Panel, Serum^99Lab^80061^Lipid Panel, Serum^C4|||20100407151000||||L|||||PRO1000#^Butler^Internist^E^^Dr^MD^^^^^^EI||||RO||20100407121000|||F
OBX|1|NM|13457-7^LDL Cholesterol^LN||90|mg/dL|< 99||||F|||||^DOE^JOHN|||||||AccuLabs^^^^^CLIA^^^^10D987432|432 Administration Ave.^^St. Louis^MO^63146|^Smith^John^^^Dr.^MD
OBX|2|NM|14646-4^HDL Cholesterol^LN||60|mg/dL|40-59|H|||F|||||^DOE^JOHN|||||||AccuLabs^^^^^CLIA^^^^10D987432|432 Administration Ave.^^St. Louis^MO^63146|^Smith^John^^^Dr.^MD
OBX|3|NM|14647-2^Total Cholesterol^LN||120|mg/dL|< 199||||F|||||^DOE^JOHN|||||||AccuLabs^^^^^CLIA^^^^10D987432|432 Administration Ave.^^St. Louis^MO^63146|^Smith^John^^^Dr.^MD
OBX|4|NM|14927-8^Triglycerides^LN||100|mg/dL|< 149||||F|||||^DOE^JOHN|||||||AccuLabs^^^^^CLIA^^^^10D987432|432 Administration Ave.^^St. Louis^MO^63146|^Smith^John^^^Dr.^MD

Example HL7 Message

HL7 messages are in human-readable (ASCII) format, though they may require some effort to interpret.

Each HL7 message consists of one or more segments. A carriage return character (\r, which is 0D in hexadecimal) separates one segment from another. Each segment is displayed on a different line of text. (as seen in the sample HL7 message below)

Each HL7 segment consists of one or more composites (also known as fields). A pipe (|) character is used to separate one composite from another.

If a composite contains other composites, these sub-composites (or sub-fields) are normally separated by ^ characters.

Sample HL7 message:


PID||0493575^^^2^ID 1|454721||DOE^JOHN^^^^|DOE^JOHN^^^^|19480203|M||B|254 MYSTREET AVE^^MYTOWN^OH^44123^USA||(216)123-4567|||M|NON|400003403~1129086|
PV1||O|168 ~219~C~PMA^^^^^^^^^||||277^ALLEN MYLASTNAME^BONNIE^^^^|||||||||| ||2688684|||||||||||||||||||||||||199912271408||||||002376853

Tuesday, August 20, 2013

The BRAI bill is riddled with problems

The BRAI bill is riddled with problems. Here are some of the glaring issues.

  • The current BRAI bill was drafted in a secretive fashion with no opportunity for the general public to comment on a legislation which deals with something of this magnitude- the safety of our food.
  • There is an inherent conflict of interest with the proposed BRAI being located within the Ministry of Science and Technology, a body who also has a mandate to promote GM crops.
  • In the BRAI bill there is not even a mention of independent long term bio-safety testing and assessments of GM crops which is crucial to assess their safety for the present and the future.
  • It is a centralised and narrow decision making process with no effective mechanism of consultation from the public which is against the spirit of democracy.
  • There is no mechanism of transparency. Worse, the BRAI bill will bypass the citizen’s right to information by overriding the Right to Information Act.
  • The BRAI bill takes away the decision making authority of the state governments in open releases of GM crops, including for experiments. It supersedes the constitutional authority of state governments over public health and agriculture.
  • There is no deterrent liability mechanism thereby facilitating the giant seed corporations to go more or less unpunished for the grave dangers that their GM crops can cause to us and our future generations.
  • BRAI by lowering the bar for GM crop approvals are facilitating the take over of our farming and food by multinational seed corporations like Monsanto, thus even challenging our country’s sovereignty.

dont allow genetically modified crops in our country

Why we should not allow genetically modified crops in our country.

GM crops and associated chemicals like herbicides are controversial world-wide due to their harmful effects on human, animal and environmental health. 
Our food and farming will be controlled by bio-tech multinationals and our farmer’s livelihoods will be adversely affected. 
GM crops will destroy bio-diversity and can even impact beneficial insects like bees and butterflies besides contaminating the wild gene pool. 
GM crops once permitted will contaminate regular varieties of crops as well, thereby leaving no choice for consumers if they want to avoid GM food, or farmers if they want to avoid GM seeds. 
Passing of alien genes from GM crops to other species through contamination is a very real and serious threat. 
Corporate control of seeds through GM seed technology is an established reality. In the 10 years since Bt cotton was approved in India, Monsanto, through its patented Bt gene controls 95% of cotton seeds sold.

save your food from foreign corporations

  • Our government wants to help foreign corporations, like Monsanto, dump genetically modified (GM) seeds on our farmers and ultimately GM food on our plate. They want to create a Biotechnology Regulatory Authority of India (BRAI) which will approve GM crops, without even considering your opinion or mine.
  • Lakhs of people have been protesting against the bill that will create BRAI. They have succeeded in stalling it for three years, but the threat of the bill getting cleared still lingers.
  • You can make this effort to save our food a big success. Join hands with lakhs of people, who have saved our food so far, to prevent the creation of BRAI.
  • The BRAI bill was introduced, rather slyly, in the Budget session of Parliament in 2013. Right now, it’s being reviewed by a Standing Committee on Science, Technology, Environment and Forests. There are chances of it being presented again in the Monsoon session of Parliament in August. We can't let this happen.
  • This is our chance to make sure that our right to eat safe and healthy food is not taken away by foreign multinational seed corporations. 
  • Join now if you want to have a say in the food you eat.

Real story of American Dollar v/s Indian Rupee

Real story of American Dollar v/s Indian Rupee
(Very Interesting Article MUST SHARE)
An Advice to all who are worrying about fall of Indian Rupee

Throughout the country please stop using cars except for emergency for only seven days (Just 7 days)
Definitely Dollar rate will come down. This is true. The value to dollar is given by petrol only.This is called Derivative Trading. America has stopped valuing its Dollar with Gold 70 years ago.

Americans understood that Petrol is equally valuable as Gold so they made Agreement with all the Middle East countries to sell petrol in Dollars only. That is why Americans print their Dollar as legal tender for debts. This mean if you don't like their American Dollar and go to their Governor and ask for repayment in form of Gold,as in India they won't give you Gold.

You observe Indian Rupee, " I promise to pay the bearer..." is clearly printed along with the signature of Reserve Bank Governor. This mean, if you don't like Indian Rupee and ask for repayment,Reserve Bank of India will pay you back an equal value of gold.(Actually there may be minor differences in the Transaction dealing rules, but for easy comprehension I am explaining this)

Let us see an example. Indian petroleum minister goes to Middle East country to purchase petrol, the Middle East petrol bunk people will say that liter petrol is one Dollar.
But Indians won't have dollars. They have Indian Rupees. So what to do now? So That Indian Minister will ask America to give Dollars. American Federal Reserve will take a white paper , print Dollars on it and give it to the Indian Minister. Like this we get dollars , pay it to petrol bunks and buy petrol.

But there is a fraud here. If you change your mind and want to give back the Dollars to America we can't demand them to pay Gold in return for the Dollars. They will say " Have we promised to return something back to you? Haven't you checked the Dollar ? We clearly printed on the Dollar that it is Debt"
So, Americans don't need any Gold with them to print Dollars. They will print Dollars on white papers as they like.

But what will Americans give to the Middle East countries for selling petrol in Dollars only?

Middle East kings pay rent to America for protecting their kings and heirs. Similarly they are still paying back the Debt to America for constructing Roads and Buildings in their countries. This is the value of American Dollar. That is why Many say some day the Dollar will be destroyed.

At present the problem of India is the result of buying those American Dollars. American white papers are equal to Indian Gold. So if we reduce the consumption of petrol and cars, Dollar will come down

The Above Details are translated originally from Telugu Language to English by Radhika Gr.
Kindly share this and make everyone aware of the facts of American Dollar V/s Indian Rupee.

And here is a small thing other than petrol , what we can do to our Indian Rupee


Please spare a couple of minutes here for the sake of India.
Here's a small example:-

At 2008 August month 1 US $ = INR Rs 39.40
At 2013 August now 1 $ = INR Rs 62

Do you think US Economy is booming? No, but Indian Economy is Going Down.

Our economy is in your hands.INDIAN economy is in a crisis. Our country like many other ASIAN countries, is undergoing a severe economic crunch. Many INDIAN industries are closing down. The INDIAN economy is in a crisis and if we do not take proper steps to control those, we will be in a critical situation. More than 30,000 crore rupees of foreign exchange are being siphoned out of our country on products such as cosmetics, snacks, tea, beverages, etc. which are grown, produced and consumed here.

A cold drink that costs only 70 / 80 paise to produce, is sold for Rs.9 and a major chunk of profits from these are sent abroad. This is a serious drain on INDIAN economy. We have nothing against Multinational companies, but to protect our own interest we request everybody to use INDIAN products only at least for the next two years. With the rise in petrol prices, if we do not do this, the Rupee will devalue further and we will end up paying much more for the same products in the near future.

What you can do about it?
Buy only products manufactured by WHOLLY INDIAN COMPANIES.Each individual should become a leader for this awareness. This is the only way to save our country from severe economic crisis. You don't need to give-up your lifestyle. You just need to choose an alternate product.

Daily products which are COLD DRINKS,BATHING SOAP ,TOOTH PASTE,TOOTH BRUSH ,SHAVING CREAM,BLADE, TALCUM POWDER ,MILK POWDER ,SHAMPOO , Food Items etc. all you need to do is buy Indian Goods and Make sure Indian rupee is not crossing outside India.

Every INDIAN product you buy makes a big difference. It saves INDIA. Let us take a firm decision today.

we are not anti-multinational. we are trying to save our nation. every day is a struggle for a real freedom. we achieved our independence after losing many lives.
they died painfully to ensure that we live peacefully. the current trend is very threatening.

multinationals call it globalization of indian economy. for indians like you and me, it is re-colonization of india. the colonist's left india then. but this time, they will make sure they don't make any mistakes.

russia, s.korea, mexico - the list is very long!! let us learn from their experience and from our history. let us do the duty of every true indian. finally, it's obvious that you can't give up all of the items mentioned above. so give up at least one item for the sake of our country!

We would be sending useless forwards to our friends daily. Instead, please forward this to all your friends to create awareness.

Thursday, August 8, 2013

Sir Ravindra Jadeja

Sir Ravindra Jadeja moves to No.1 Rank in ICC ODI Bowlers Ranking!

ODI Team Ranking:-
India - No.1

ODI Batsmen Ranking:-
Virat Kohli - No.4
MS Dhoni - No.7

ODI Bowlers Ranking:-
Ravindra Jadeja - No.1

ODI Allrounders Ranking:-
Ravindra Jadeja - No.2

4 Consecutive ODI series WIN by Team India!

PAN card explained

PAN card explained...!!!

PAN is a 10 digit alpha numeric number, where the first 5 characters are letters, the next 4 numbers and the last one a letter again.
These 10 characters can be divided in five parts as can be seen below.
The meaning of each number has been explained further.

1. First three characters are alphabetic series running from AAA to ZZZ

2. Fourth character of PAN represents the status of the PAN holder.
• C — Company
• P — Person
• H — HUF(Hindu Undivided Family)
• F — Firm
• A — Association of Persons (AOP)
• T — AOP (Trust)
• B — Body of Individuals (BOI)
• L — Local Authority
• J — Artificial Juridical Person
• G — Government

3. Fifth character represents first character of the PAN holder’s last name/surname.

4. Next four characters are sequential number running from 0001 to 9999.

5. Last character in the PAN is an alphabetic check digit.

Nowadays, the DOI (Date of Issue) of PAN card is mentioned at the right (vertical) hand side of the photo on the PAN card.

SHARE with your Friends...!!!